Knowledge Base

Chambers of Heart Surface anatomy of valves of heart

Best positions to auscultate sounds originating from valves

Utility of diaphragm and bell stethoscope

Physiology of heart sounds  

Physiology of heart murmurs

Effect of breathing on hemodynamics "Cardiac drill"

Pathology of defective valves

Hemodynamics secondary to valvular defects


  1. Review Dr. John McNulty's lesson, "Projections and Auscultations of Heart Valves".
  2. Bates, A Guide to Physical Exam.... 284-310.