Otitis media

Predisposing factors


Etiologic agents 

The most common causes of otitis media are

Group A streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus are rare causes of otitis media


Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Unusual Organisms rarely.


Clinical manifestations

Physical findings

Complications and long-term consequences   .


The only way to determine the specific pathogen in the middle ear is to perform  tympanocentesis . It is not commonly performed, and antibiotic therapy is generally used empirically. Tympanocentesis should be considered in selected patients:  


Antimicrobial agents are not indicated for initial treatment of OME; treatment may be indicated if effusions persist for 3 months or more. 

Decongestants, Antihistamines, and Corticosteroids.: no significant evidence of efficacy of any of these preparations.

Chronic Otitis Media