- Scoliosis: Lateral curvature of spine.
- Kyphosis: Rounded thoracic convexity: (Aging,)
- Gibbus: Angular deformity. Collapse of single vertebra (Tb, Mets, Osteoporosis), Spondylolisthesis.
- Lordosis: Accentuation of lumbar curve (Pregnancy, Obesity)
- Loss of lumbar lordosis: Flattening of lumbar curve ( Herniated disc, Ankylosing spondylitis)
- Tenderness: (Trauma, Herniated disc, Osteomyelitis, Mets)
- Limitation of range of motion: (Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing spondylitis, TB, Mets)